Industry Knowledge

50 Years Refinement, The leader of Textile Machinery in China

13 Kind of Spinning Processes, Types of Spinning Process

13 Kind of Spinning Processes, Types of Spinning Process

1. Ring spinning

At present, the most widely used and most common spinning method on the market, the sliver or roving after drafting is introduced through the rotation of the ring traveler, the bobbin is wound faster than the traveler, and the cotton yarn is twisted to make spun yarn. It is widely used in spinning engineering of various staple fibers. Such as carding, combing and blending, the traveler is driven by the bobbin through the sliver to rotate around the ring. At the same time of rolling, the friction of the ring makes the rotation speed slightly lower than that of the bobbin and is wound. The spinning speed is high, and the shape of the ring yarn is a conical helical thread in which most of the fibers are transferred inside and outside, so that the fibers are wound inside and outside the yarn. The structure of the yarn is compact and the strength is high. Various products.

Ring spinning (combing) process:

Blowing room--carding--pre-drawing--stripe-winding--combing--first-pass drawing--second-pass drawing--roving--spinning--winding

Ring spinning (carding) process:

Blowing room--carding--first drawing--second drawing--roving--spinning--winding


2. Twistless spinning

A spinning method that uses a binder to bind the fibers in the sliver to each other into a yarn. After the roving is drawn by the drafting device, the whisker is sent to the twisting drum, and the thin layer of adhesive from the tank box is contacted on the return drum. The fiber strip is transported forward by several rotating small pressure rollers together with the drum, and one of the small pressure rollers also performs axial reciprocating motion at the same time, rubbing the fiber strip into a circular cross-section and making each fiber contact evenly. to the adhesive. The circular fiber strips are dried by a heater, and the fibers stick to each other to form a yarn. The spinning speed can be 2~4 times higher than that of the conventional spinning method, and the resulting yarn can be used for weaving.


3. Self-twist spinning

An unconventional spinning method. (similar to siro yarn) The two fiber strips are drawn by the drafting device, output by the front roller and the twisting roller, and combined at the yarn guide hook. The twisting roller not only rotates, but also reciprocates in the axial direction rapidly to twist the sliver, so that the sliver before and after the twisting roller is twisted in the opposite direction. The two yarn slivers that are closed at the yarn guide hook are twisted into double-strand self-twisted yarn (ST yarn) by themselves by their own anti-torque moment, and are wound into a bobbin. The morphological feature of self-twisted yarn is that the adjacent yarn sections alternately twist in positive and negative directions, and there is no twist at the alternation. Add twist in one direction on the twisting machine to make twisted self-twisting yarn (STT yarn). Two groups of self-twisting yarns are arranged and combined with a phase difference of 90° in the untwisted area to form four-ply yarns, referred to as "2ST yarns", and then low-twisted on the twisting machine to make (2ST) T yarns. The two are collectively referred to as "(ST) 2" yarn. When a filament is used to replace a single sliver in the self-twist, STM (STM)T yarn can be made accordingly. This spinning method is specially used for multi-plied yarns, such as woolen or wool-like synthetic products. High-quality self-twisting yarn can be directly used for weft knitting, but for weaving warp yarn, twisting self-twisting yarn must be used to improve the strength performance.


4. Centrifugal spinning

A continuous spinning method that uses a high-speed centrifugal tank (cup) and a lifting yarn guide to implement twisting and winding. After the roving passes through the drafting device, the fiber sliver is continuously output by the front roller, and enters the high-speed rotating cylindrical centrifugal tank through the yarn guide hook and the yarn guide tube. The sliver between the lower end of the yarn guide tube and the front roller is twisted, and the rotation speed of the yarn sliver in the horizontal direction under the yarn guide tube lags behind the centrifugal tank to generate winding. The yarn guide tube rises and falls according to a certain rule to form a cross-wound yarn cake. When the winding reaches a certain length, the front roller stops outputting fiber strips, the yarn guide tube rises and exits the centrifuge tank, and the empty bobbin tube is rapidly lowered into the centrifuge tank. The yarn end hooks the yarn hook at the lower part of the bobbin, so that the yarn on the yarn cake is unwound onto the bobbin. After the unwinding is completed, the full tube is removed. Compared with the ring spinning, the power consumption is large, the yarn returns are many, the end breakage is difficult to handle, the yarn is rewound on the bobbin, and the front roller needs to stop, which affects the productivity. Few people use it now.


5. Cap spinning

Spinning method for actual sliver twist winding with spindle cap and bobbin. For wool and linen spinning. The spindle cap of the bell jar type is fixed on the top of the spindle, and the bobbin is looped on the spindle. After the roving is thinned by the drafting device, the fiber strip is continuously output by the front roller, and is wound on the bobbin through the yarn guide hook and the lower edge of the spindle cap. When the bobbin rotates, it drives the sliver to rotate under the spindle cap, and the sliver is continuously twisted. The frictional resistance of the spindle cap to the rotating sliver makes the sliver continuously wound on the bobbin. The bobbin is lifted and lowered according to a certain rule with the lifting plate, and the spun yarn is wound into a certain package form. The spinning tension of the cap-spindle spinning method is small, and the end breakage is less.


6. Mule spinning

A spinning method that periodically implements three functions of sliver drafting, twisting and winding. A work cycle is divided into four phases:

The first stage—spinning, the drafting device drafts the roving and sends out the fiber sliver, the spindle car leaves the drafting device and moves outward, slightly drafts the sliver, and the spindle rotates to twist the spun yarn;

The second stage - twisting, the drafting device and the spindle car are stopped, the spindle rotates continuously, and the twisting of the spun yarn is completed;

The third stage---unwinding, the drafting device and the spindle car continue to stand still, the spindle rotates slowly in the opposite direction during twisting, unwinding the yarn ring from the tip of the spindle, the upper forming hook descends, and guides the unwinding out the yarn loop, the lower forming hook rises, and the yarn strip is tightened;

The fourth stage---winding, the drafting device continues to stop, the spindle car moves to the drafting device quickly, the spindle rotates in the direction of twisting, winding the spun yarn, and the upper forming hook guides the spun yarn to make the winding tight and smooth. To form a certain package, lower the forming hook to tighten the yarn. There are many shortcomings, the machine works intermittently, the output is low, the mechanism is complex, and the floor area is large. Except for spinning a small amount of very fine, very thick, weak twist or spun yarn with high uniformity requirements, this method has been used by ring spindles. Spinning and other alternatives. Some of the spindles on the machine do not move, but the frame with the drafting device moves back and forth, that is, the walking frame.


7. Open-End spinning

A new spinning method that loosens the fiber strands into single fibers and condenses the single fibers into free-end fiber strands, and then twists them into yarns. The condensed fiber sliver rotates together with the twisting of the yarn, and is in the form of free end. Because the fed fiber sliver and the free end fiber sliver are in a broken state, it is also called "broken spinning". The methods of condensing single fibers into free-end fiber strips are different, including open-end spinning or rotor spinning, electrostatic spinning, vortex spinning and dust-cage (friction) spinning, etc. Among them, the application of open-end spinning is the most common. At present, most people in open-end spinning refer to open-end spinning. Compared with conventional ring spinning, it has the following advantages: the twisting and winding movements are separated, the total draft on the open-end spinning machine is much larger than that of the ring spinning machine, and the twisting can be performed at high speed; the sliver after twisting It can be directly wound into a bobbin, the package capacity is large, and the process is simplified; it can reduce the labor intensity of workers and improve the labor environment.


8. Rotor spinning

Also known as "rotor spinning". One of the most effective free-end spinning methods. The core is a spinning rotor. The fiber strip is input from the feed roller and the plate, and is opened by a high-speed small roller (opening roller). Single fiber. The negative air pressure in the spinning rotor makes the single fiber enter the spinning rotor through the conveying pipeline with the supplementary air, and under the action of the centrifugal force of the high-speed rotation of the cup, it sticks to the agglomeration groove at the maximum inner diameter of the rotor along the smooth inner wall. , forming a ring-shaped fiber strip. When the yarn is spliced and spliced, the yarn tail is put into the yarn feeding tube with the supplementary air flow, and it is also attached to the condensation tank due to the centrifugal action of the rotor, so that the yarn tail and the fiber strip are connected. When the yarn is pulled out of the spinning rotor, the fiber sliver leaves the condensing tank with the yarn tail, and is twisted into yarn by the high rotation of the spinning rotor at the same time. The bobbin is wound into a bobbin. It is suitable for spinning short fibers, medium and thick special yarns, the fiber strips are clean and uniform, and the yarn has more twists. Its shape is different from ring spinning. Surrounded by fibers with low twist, the yarn from the axis to the surface is subjected to uneven distribution of tension. The open-end spinning yarn is mostly used for weaving corduroy, labor cloth, yarn-dyed fleece and printed fleece, etc. The process of open-end spinning:

Blowing room--carding--first drawing--second drawing--air spinning


JGR232 Rotor spinning machine is one of the similar type of positioning is higher, the design of fast new spinning equipment, the product structure design is reasonable, install the tray type spinning box, using high quality spare parts at home and abroad, its optimal spinning range is wide, the main raw material for: pure cotton, pure polyester, polyester/cotton, viscose, recycle, lint cotton and blended, etc...


9. Electrostatic spinning

One of the open-end spinning methods. It is composed of fiber opening, conveying, electrostatic coagulation, free end twisting, bobbin winding and other technological processes. There are two methods of fiber opening and transportation:

(1) The roller drafting is used as the opening mechanism, and the transportation of the fibers uses the electrostatic field effect;

(2) The licker-in roller is used as the opening mechanism, and the cotton fiber is transported by air flow,

The latter method is commonly used in electrospinning. The sliver is input between the feeding roller and the feeding board, and is opened into single fibers by the high-speed rotating small roller, and sucked by the high-voltage electrode (+), the twister electrode (-) and the closed fiber by the air flow of the cotton feeding pipe. Inside the electrostatic field composed of the cover. Cotton fibers are straightened, aligned and condensed into fiber strands under the action of ionization and polarization. After the yarn is introduced by the hollow twister, the fibers in the sliver are continuously twisted and twisted, and the high-speed rotating twister twists the yarn into yarn, which is wound into a bobbin by the grooved drum winding mechanism. Cotton fiber is a poor conductor, and the fiber entering the electrostatic field needs to be wetted in advance, so that it has a high moisture regain. The agglomerated fiber strip is affected by various resistances, the rotation is not fully free, and the twisting efficiency is low. Electrospun yarns are suitable for weaving quilts, furniture fabrics, knitted jacquard tablecloths, curtain fabrics and other products; spinning various blended yarns, slub yarns and core-spun yarns, and can also be made into fabrics with unique styles.


10. Vortex spinning

One of the open-end spinning methods. The fiber sliver is input between the feeding roller and the feeding plate, and is opened into fibers by the high-speed small roller, and then enters the static vortex twisting tube tangentially through the conveying pipe with the air flow. The lower part of the vortex twisting tube is connected with the air negative pressure source, and the nozzle is arranged tangentially with the inner wall of the twisting tube. The upward moving vortex part of the nozzle is weakened by the action of the lower air negative pressure source in the pipe, so that the fibers entering the twisting pipe tangentially are spiraled along the pipe wall, and condensed into a rotating fiber ring in the stable vortex field. When the yarn is drawn, the trailing yarn will pass through the yarn drawing tube and be connected with the fiber ring under the action of centrifugal force. When the yarn is pulled out from the spinning head, once the fiber loop is cut off, the cut-off part of the fiber strip is added and twisted by the rotating fiber loop to form the yarn, and the bobbin is driven by the grooved tube to be wound into a bobbin. The mechanism and operation are simple; the spinning speed is extremely high; there is no fiber loss and less flying; the twisting efficiency is low. It is suitable for spinning chemical fiber pure or blended medium and thick yarn, and it has better effect as pile yarn and core-spun yarn.


11. Air jet spinning

An unconventional spinning method. When the fiber sliver is false-twisted after drafting by jet air, some free fibers at the head end of the fiber sliver are wrapped around the periphery of the fiber sliver for spinning. There are single-nozzle and double-nozzle type, the latter has good spinning quality and stability. The fiber sliver is thinned by the drafting device, output from the front roller, and wound into a bobbin from the grooved drum through the first nozzle, the second nozzle, the yarn guide hook, and the yarn delivery roller. The vortex rotation directions of the two nozzles are opposite, and the vortex strength of the second nozzle is greater than that of the first nozzle, so that the twist on the sliver between the two nozzles can overcome the torque and resistance added by the first nozzle to the sliver, and transmit it to the front roller. at the jaws. The free end of the twisted fiber around the fiber strip is affected by the first nozzle and wrapped around the fiber strip in the opposite direction. The fibers of the twisted core part are receded and twisted through the nozzle, while the wrapping fibers become tighter and tighter during the reverse untwisting process. Provides yarn strength and cohesion. Compared with ring spinning, it has the advantages of high output, large package and short process. The range of air-jet spinning speed is 100-200 m/min, and the suitable spinning range is: 5.5-3.0 tex. The output is 10 times that of ring spinning and 2 times that of air spinning. It is suitable for spinning all kinds of staple fiber and filament core-spun yarn, and processing plied medium-length chemical fiber yarn. Japan's Murata is an air-jet spinning expert, and its products include MJS, MVS, and RJS. The shape of air-jet spinning is similar to that of air-jet spinning, with a hard hand and good hairiness.

Air-jet spinning process:

Blowing room--carding--pre-drawing--stripe-winding--combing--first-pass drawing--second-pass drawing--air-jet spinning


12. Friction spinning

A method of using the friction effect of the surface of the machine on the surface of the sliver to generate twist into yarn. The more mature ones have *dust cage spinning.


13. DREF spinning

Also known as (Drev spinning) friction spinning, most of which are collectively referred to as friction spinning, which is a free-end spinning method. Traditional rotor spinning, ring spinning and open-end spinning technologies are all limited by physical machinery, affecting yarn production speed, production capacity, selection of fiber raw materials and the structure of the yarn itself Dr. ERNST FEHRER began in adulthood in the 70's Dedicated to the study of DREF, and applied for a patent in 1973. The principle is that the fiber strips are loosened into single fibers by the rollers, and are blown to the surface of a rotating dust cage by the action of air flow. The distance between a pair of dust cages is very small. When the layer reaches the triangle area of the two dust cages, it is twisted and twisted by the surface of the two dust cages to form yarn, which is drawn by the yarn guide hook to the yarn roller, and is directly wound into a bobbin by the winding mechanism. It is suitable for spinning thick special yarn, and can also be spun with filament yarn, usually weaving thick fabrics or various blankets.


Related Product

Cotton Spinning Machine, Cotton Yarn Spinning Machine

JGR231 Cotton Yarn Spinning Machine is a new type of spinning equipment with advanced positioning and fast speed among the similar models in China at present. Its suitable spinning range is wide, the main raw materials are: pure cotton, viscose, wool, hemp, spun silk, cotton-type chemical fiber, recycled cotton, staple wool and its blending, etc. The spinning range is 5S ~ 36 S....

OE Spinning Machine, Open End Spinning Machine

JGR331 Open End Spinning Machine (OE Spinning Machine) using suction type spinning box, bearing type rotary cup; The whole structure of the equipment adopts flat design to reduce the operation height. The applicable raw materials of the equipment are: pure cotton, pure polyester, polyester cotton, viscose and so on. It has the characteristics of energy saving and high efficiency....

Rotor Spinning Machine

JGR232 Rotor spinning machine is one of the similar type of positioning is higher, the design of fast new spinning equipment, the product structure design is reasonable, install the tray type spinning box, using high quality spare parts at home and abroad, its optimal spinning range is wide, the main raw material for: pure cotton, pure polyester, polyester/cotton, viscose, recycle, lint cotton and blended, etc....

Share this Post:
Send Inquiry

Send Inquiry

Send Inquiry